In recent years, the human genome has been sequenced and the biotechnology industry needs new analytical tools and solutions to study the life sciences. The miniaturization of bioanalytical systems helps to reduce costs and time to perform experiments in order to streamline and accelerate laboratory assays. Microfluidics can also be used to speed up and simplify sample preparation steps in genomic and proteomic research and to offer high throughput, low cost versions of traditional research methods. The future micro- and nanotechnology for bioanalytical systems has become an increasingly important method for genomic and proteomic applications, as well as drug discovery and development research.
Nanobiotechnology is the application of nanotechnology and micro/nanofluidics to the life sciences. This research field comprises two approaches. One is the application of nano-scaled tools to biological systems and the other is the use of biological systems as templates in the development of novel nano-scaled products. Nanobiotechnology offers new opportunities to transform broad areas of science and engineering by combining nanotechnology with biotechnology. It can not only play a complementary role in both of the afore-mentioned technology areas, but also create novel synergy effects. At present, the development of a robust, sensitive and high-throughput lab-on-a-chip is one of the major issues in the area of nanobiotechnology. The biological detection system for nanoscale devices should be provided for simpler, one-step and homogeneous assays. The assay platform for lab-on-a-chip also ensures compatibility with miniaturization. A microfluidic system for biological sample processing offers many potential advantages over a conventional assay platform, including small volumes, short assay time, multiple assay and automation.
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